Celebrate Sweet’s Syndrome UK Day on June 2nd!

June 2nd 2017 is Sweet’s Syndrome UK Day & the 5th anniversary of Sweet’s Syndrome UK.

What can you do to help spread awareness?

  1. Like our Facebook page, and share one of our posts.
  2. Join our HealthUnlocked forum. This is a free online community that’s available in English, Spanish, and Portuguese.
  3. Follow this blog.
  4. Follow on twitter @sweetsfiend.
  5. Follow on Google +.
  6. Talk about Sweet’s syndrome: share some posts; comment; blog about your experiences; tag a friend; tweet for Sweet’s.
  7. Share 5 key facts or 10 myths about Sweet’s syndrome.
  8. Make a donation to the Autoinflammatory Alliance. This is a US-based non-profit organization that helps children and adults with autoinflammatory conditions, including Sweet’s syndrome.
  9. Make a donation to Skin Care Cymru. This a Welsh charity that gives a voice to those with skin conditions in Wales.

BEE sweet and buzz for Sweet’s – help us spread the word!

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Yes, this is my own work!

Image: ‘I’m a resurcher’, Contrived Platitudes.

There’s been ongoing confusion over whether or not the information on the Sweet’s Syndrome UK blog is my own work. The answer is ‘Yes, this is my own work!’ 😲

Most of the Sweet’s syndrome information I provide has not simply been copied and pasted, reblogged or reshared, as certain individuals have insinuated or claimed. Occasionally, I do share information from other blogs or websites, but I make it clear when the work is not my own.

If you would like to access free full-text medical case-studies and articles about Sweet’s syndrome, most of which have been referenced in my blog posts, click here.

Thank you,

Michelle Holder. 💛 💛

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Can vaccination trigger Sweet’s syndrome?

Links checked 17/01/18.

Sweet’s syndrome triggered by vaccination.

There is some medical evidence to show that certain vaccinations can potentially trigger Sweet’s syndrome, but this is very rare, and it is important to take the following information into consideration:

  • Sweet’s syndrome is rare, probably affecting no more than 3 people per 10,000 (Zamanian and Ameri, 2007).
  • It mainly affects adults not children, and only 5% to 8% of cases have been in children (Sharma et al, 2015).
  • In some people, something is needed to trigger the onset of Sweet’s syndrome, but in 50% of people with Sweet’s syndrome there is no known trigger.
  • Infection is a more common trigger for Sweet’s syndrome than vaccination, and as a result, Sweet’s syndrome tends to be more common in countries where people are more likely to develop infections (Ginarte and Toribio, 2011: 120). It is most commonly triggered by upper respiratory tract infection, but can be triggered by other infections too.
  • There have only been 11 cases of Sweet’s syndrome triggered by vaccination reported in medical literature in the past 42 years, globally. In some of these cases, a definite connection between the vaccination and Sweet’s syndrome was not established.
  • Sweet’s syndrome has only been associated with certain vaccinations and not others (see below).

Which vaccinations have been associated with Sweet’s syndrome?

Sweet’s syndrome has been associated with the following vaccinations:

  • Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG or tuberculosis) (Carpentier et al, 2002: 82; Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016). Two cases. One in 1986, occurring 15 days after vaccination, but the authors of the medical article that reported this did not control the tuberculin (Mantoux) test. One reported in 2002, occurring 10 days after vaccination.
  • Hepatitis B (Enokawa et al, 2017). One case in a 69-year-old man with the autoimmune condition, systemic lupus erythematosus. Symptoms of Sweet’s syndrome started to develop 48 hours after vaccination, and there were no lesions at the vaccination site.
  • Influenza (Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016; Hali et al, 2010, Jovanovic et al, 2005; Tan el al. 2006; Wolf et al. 2009). Four cases. One reported in 2005; in 2006, one case of bullous Sweet’s syndrome following vaccination in a HIV-infected patient; in 2009, neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands occurring 12 hours after vaccination; in 2010, one case of Sweet’s syndrome after H1N1 influenza (swine flu) vaccination.
  • Smallpox (Carpentier et al, 2002: 82; Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016). Two cases reported in 1975, occurring 3 days after vaccination.
  • Streptococcus pneumonia (Carpentier et al, 2002: 82; Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016; Pedrosa et al, 2013). Two cases. One reported in 1990, occurring 4 days after vaccination following a splenectomy. One reported in 2013, and the first with the 13-valent conjugate vaccine.

Do vaccinations trigger Sweet’s syndrome because they are toxic or contain dangerous chemicals?

No. Vaccinations do not trigger Sweet’s syndrome because they are toxic or contain dangerous chemicals, and anyone who tells you this may be doing so for one of the following reasons: they have no real understanding of vaccination or Sweet’s syndrome; they are trying to scare you; they are trying to promote an anti-vax agenda; they are trying to sell you something, e.g. ‘detox’ products that will supposedly cleanse your body of vaccine ‘toxins’, and thereby, cure your Sweet’s syndrome.

Why do vaccinations trigger Sweet’s syndrome?

Vaccination can trigger Sweet’s syndrome because of hypersensitivity reaction.

What is hypersensitivity reaction in Sweet’s syndrome?

Sweet’s syndrome is caused by errors in the innate immune system, the body’s most primitive, ‘hard-wired’ immune system, and a part of the immune system that doesn’t produce antibodies. Because of these errors, in some people with Sweet’s syndrome, their innate immune system responds to antigens in a way that it shouldn’t, i.e. is hypersensitive and goes into overdrive, overreacting to the presence of infectious, inflammatory, drug, or tumour cell antigens (Bhat et al, 2015: 257; Kasirye et al, 2011: 135).

Antigens are mainly proteins or sugars on the surface of a cell or a non-living substance, that a part of your immune system called the adaptive immune system sees as a foreign invader and produces antibodies in response to. The presence of antigens associated with certain health conditions, medications and vaccinations can potentially trigger Sweet’s syndrome by stimulating the innate immune system to produce molecular messengers called cytokines, which eventually leads to the activation of white blood cells called neutrophils (Gosheger et al, 2002: 70). The neutrophils migrate to skin tissues and sometimes other tissues, causing skin lesions or other symptoms of Sweet’s syndrome.

If I have Sweet’s syndrome should I avoid having vaccinations?

No. Most people with Sweet’s syndrome don’t need to avoid having their vaccinations unless they can’t be vaccinated for other medical reasons, e.g. they are taking certain types of medication or have other health conditions. However, if the Sweet’s syndrome was initially triggered by a particular vaccination, e.g. influenza, then it would not be advisable to have the same kind of vaccination again.

How do I know if vaccination has triggered my Sweet’s syndrome?

Remember, Sweet’s syndrome triggered by vaccination is very rare, but if it does happen then symptoms usually develop within hours or days, less commonly, a few weeks after vaccination. Skin lesions sometimes appear at the vaccination site, but this can also happen because of the skin damage caused by having the vaccination (puncture wound from the needle) rather than the vaccine itself. This response is known as pathergy.

Are there other triggers for Sweet’s syndrome?

Yes, and aside from the triggers that have already been mentioned (infection, skin damage, and vaccination), other triggers for Sweet’s syndrome include:

  • Cancer in 15-20% of cases, most commonly, myelodysplastic syndromes (Chen et al, 2016).
  • Inflammatory bowel disease, e.g. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (Cohen, 2007).
  • Autoimmune conditions, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • Medications in 12% of cases.
  • Pregnancy in up to 2% of cases.
  • Immunodeficiency.
  • Overexposure to sunlight or ultraviolet light.

References.

Bhat, Y., Hassan, I., Sajad, P., Akhtar, S. and Sheikh, S. (2015) Sweet’s Syndrome: An Evidence-Based Report. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons – Pakistan, Jul;25(7):525-7 (PubMed).

Carpentier, O., Piette, F. and Delaporte, E. (2002) Sweet’s syndrome after BCG vaccination. Acta Dermato-Venereologica;82(3):221 (PubMed).

Chen, S., Kuo, Y., Liu, Y., Chen, B., Lu, Y. and Miser, J. (2016) Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting with Sweet Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Pediatrics and Neonatology (online).

Cohen, P. (2007) Sweet’s syndrome – a comprehensive review of an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (BMC).

Cruz-Velásquez, G., Pac Sha, J., Simal Gil, E. and Gazulla, J. (2016). Aseptic meningitis and anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies in Sweet syndrome. Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain), Jul 21 (Elsevier). Article in Spanish, use translate.

Enokawa, M., Giovanella, L., Zardo, B., Cunha, J., Rachid Filho, A., Zeni, L., Bisognin, M., Rosseto, C. and Guimaraes, A. (2017) Sweet’s Syndrome Discharged (Caused) by Hepatitis B Vaccine. Brazilian Journal of Rheumatology, 57(suppl 1):S197 (Science Direct). Article in Portuguese, use translate.

Ginarte, M. and Toribio, J. (2011) Sweet Syndrome. In Dr. Fang-Ping (Ed.) Autoimmune Disorders – Current Concepts and Advances from Bedside to Mechanistic Insights. Croatia or China: Intech, pp. 119-132 (PDF). 

Gosheger, G., Hillman, A., Ozaki, T., Buerger, H. and Winklemann, W. (2002) Sweet’s Syndrome Associated With Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis. Acta Orthopædica Belgica, Feb;68(1):68-71 (PubMed).

Hali, F., Sbai, M., Benchikhi, H., Ouakadi, A. and Zamiati, S. (2010) [Sweet’s syndrome after H1N1 influenza vaccination]. Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie,  Nov;137(11):740-1 (PubMed).

Jovanovic, M., Poljacki, M., Vujanovic, L. and Duran, V. (2005) Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet’s syndrome) after influenza vaccination. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Feb;52(2):367-9 (PubMed).

Kasirye, Y., Danhof, R., Epperla, N. and Garcia-Montilla, R. (2011) Sweet’s Syndrome: One Disease, Multiple Faces. Clinical Medicine & Research, Nov;9(3-4):134-136 (online).

Pedrosa, A., Morais, P., Nogueira, A., Pardal, J. and Azevedo, F. (2013) Sweet’s syndrome triggered by pneumococcal vaccination. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, Sep;32(3):260-1 (PubMed).

Sharma, A., Rattan, R., Shankar, V., Tegta, G. and Verma, G. (2015) Sweet’s syndrome in a 1-year-old child. Indian Journal of  Paediatric Dermatology;16:29-31 (online).

Tan, A., Tan. H., and Lim, P. (2006) Bullous Sweet’s syndrome following influenza vaccination in a HIV-infected patient. International Journal of Dermatology, Oct;45(10):1254-5 (PubMed). 

Zamanian, A. and Ameri, A. (2007) Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet’s syndrome): a study of 15 cases in Iran. International Journal of Dermatology, Jun;46(6):571-4 (PubMed).

Wolf, R., Barzilai, A. and Davidovici, B. (2009) Neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands after influenza vaccination. International Journal of Dermatology, Jan;48(1):66-8 (PubMed).

2012-2018 Sweet’s Syndrome UK

28th Feb 2017 is Rare Disease Day: what can you do to spread awareness of Sweet’s syndrome?

The 28th February 2017 is Rare Disease Day, and it marks the tenth international Rare Disease Day coordinated by EURORDIS (the European Organization for Rare Diseases). On and around this day patient organizations from countries all over the world will be promoting awareness of rare diseases and holding awareness-raising activities, many of which will be based on the Rare Disease Day 2017 theme of research.

What can you do to spread awareness of Sweet’s syndrome?

  1. Like our Facebook page.
  2. Join our HealthUnlocked forum and community. It’s free!
  3. Follow this blog.
  4. Follow on twitter @sweetsfiend
  5. Follow on Google +.
  6. Talk about Sweet’s syndrome: share some posts; comment; blog about your experiences; tag a friend; tweet for Sweet’s.
  7. Make a donation to the Autoinflammatory Alliance. This is a US-based non-profit organization that helps children and adults with autoinflammatory conditions, including Sweet’s syndrome.
  8. Make a donation to Skin Conditions Campaign Scotland. Sweet’s Syndrome UK is a patient organization member of this charity. This gives us a greater ability to spread awareness of Sweet’s syndrome throughout the UK via Scotland.
  9. Visit the Rare Disease Day website, and sign up for their updates, download free materials, follow on social media, and read about how research can bring hope to those with a rare disease.

Mindfulness can reduce psychosocial distress in patients with conditions affecting the skin

Links checked 17/01/18.

What is mindfulness?

Taken from the UK mental health charity, MIND (MIND, 2016).

MIND describes mindfulness as:

‘A technique which can help people manage their mental health or simply gain more enjoyment from life. It involves making a special effort to give your full attention to what is happening in the present moment – to what’s happening in your body, your mind or your surroundings, for example – in a non-judgemental way. Mindfulness describes a way of approaching our thoughts and feelings so that we become more aware of them and react differently to them.’

Can mindfulness help those with conditions affecting the skin to cope better?

Yes. A study by Montgomery et al has shown that mindfulness can help people ‘to reduce the distress associated with social anxiety and avoidance found in many skin conditions’ (Montgomery et al, 2016). This is very important, as those with conditions affecting the skin are at increased risk of developing anxiety and depression, often avoid social situations as a result of the distress that they cause, and can experience disability levels that are the same as those with other long term diseases.

Can anyone be mindful, and are there different ways to be mindful or practice mindfulness?

Yes. Anyone can be mindful, and there are many different ways in which you can practice mindfulness, e.g. by stopping to notice the small everyday things, by practising meditation or yoga, and by watching your thoughts or learning to view them in a different way (NHS Choices, 2016). For more information on how to be mindful, see ‘References’ below and click on the links.

References.

MIND (2016) Mindfulness (online).

Montgomery, K., Norman, P., Messenger, A. and Thompson, A. (2016) The importance of mindfulness in psychosocial distress and quality of life in dermatology patients. British Journal of Dermatology, Nov;175(5):930-936 (online).

NHS Choices (2016) Stress, Anxiety and Depression: Mindfulness (online). Includes information on the different ways in which you can be mindful.

Skin Support (2017) Support Materials. British Association Dermatologists (online). Includes ‘Meditations and Mindfulness’.

2012-2018 Sweet’s Syndrome UK

Alternative and nutritional therapies that don’t work, should be used with caution, or completely avoided in patients with Sweet’s syndrome

Reposted on 13/10/16, links checked on 18/01/18.

Can alternative or nutritional therapies be used to treat or cure Sweet’s syndrome?

No, there is absolutely no evidence to show that Sweet’s syndrome can be successfully treated or cured with alternative or nutritional therapies. However, some of these therapies may be useful in the management of other conditions, or helpful in promoting overall psychological or physical good health and well-being.

Are you sure that alternative or nutritional therapies can’t be used to treat or cure Sweet’s syndrome, or is this simply a lie that ‘Big Pharma’ wants us to believe?

Yes, at present, the general consensus of the medical community is that there is no alternative or nutritional therapy that can be used to treat or cure Sweet’s syndrome. However, some people are being lied to, and told that there are natural and alternative cures for Sweet’s syndrome, but that ‘Big Pharma’ doesn’t want them to know about it.

Who or what is ‘Big Pharma’?

‘Big Pharma’ is a term that’s used to refer to the pharmaceutical industry. Some conspiracy theorists believe that doctors, the pharmaceutical industry and the government, are trying to keep us sick and prevent or discourage us from accessing alternative ‘miracle cures’. This is supposedly being done so that we’ll be forced to buy and use the medications that ‘Big Pharma’ produce and sell, which will continue to make them very rich. There is no evidence to support this theory, but it’s not unusual for those selling bogus treatments to resort to the ‘Big Pharma’ conspiracy simply to try and back up their false claims. This is done to try and convince you that their treatments really do work, but that ‘Big Pharma’ never wants you to discover this secret truth as it will negatively affect their profits. If someone does resort to the ‘Big Pharma’ conspiracy to back up their claims, then it’s a red flag and a strong indication that they probably can’t be trusted.

Are alternative and nutritional therapies always safe to use?

Alternative and nutritional therapies are sometimes safe to use, but not always. Some of these therapies are potentially harmful or could make Sweet’s syndrome worse. Herbal supplements in particular, can cause lots of problems. One real concern is that they can interact with medications or reduce their effectiveness, and sometimes, any interactions that do occur can be dangerous. Before trying an alternative or nutritional therapy, please check with your doctor.


Alternative and nutritional therapies that don’t work, should be used with caution, or completely avoided in patients with Sweet’s syndrome.

This is list of alternative and nutritional therapies that don’t work, should be used with caution, or completely avoided. Despite this fact, they are still being advocated or sold as treatments or cures for Sweet’s syndrome by alternative therapists, other individuals and businesses. These treatments include:

Acupuncture.

No evidence to show that acupuncture works and should be used with caution. This is because the skin damage caused by the treatment, i.e. the skin being punctured by the needles, may trigger the development of new skin lesions, and this is referred to as pathergy. However, not all Sweet’s syndrome patients demonstrate pathergy. Read more here.

Baking soda (sodium bicarbonate).

In 15-20% of Sweet’s syndrome patients, their condition develops secondary to some form of cancer, e.g. myelodysplastic syndromes, leukaemia and other cancers. Baking soda is being advocated as a treatment for both Sweet’s syndrome and cancer. This is an incredibly dangerous pseudoscientific claim, i.e. a false or made-up claim that appears to be scientifically-based, but is not. Anyone who makes such claims should not be believed and treated with extreme caution. Read more here.

Change of diet or elimination of dietary toxins.

There is no evidence to show that Sweet’s syndrome is caused by diet or dietary toxins, or that a change in diet can directly improve or cure it. Sweet’s syndrome is caused by errors in the innate immune system and involves factors such as cytokine dysregulation, hypersensitivity reaction and genetic susceptibility. Special diets, e.g. alkaline, anti-inflammatory, detox, gluten-free, Palaeolithic, dairy-free and vegan, are not treatments for Sweet’s syndrome, and could increase the risk of nutritional deficiency in some people.

If possible, try to avoid a dairy-free diet, particularly a vegan diet, if you’ve been taking systemic steroid medication for more than 3 months. This kind of diet may be lower in calcium, and if you’re taking steroids, it’s very important that you meet your daily calcium requirements (Clarys et al, 2014: 1319, 1321, 1324, 1327). This is because you will be at increased risk of developing steroid-induced osteoporosis.

You may also need to be careful about nutritional deficiency if you have other types of health condition, are pregnant, or on a low income. In regards to the latter, you might not have that much money to spend on food and struggle to meet your nutritional needs as a result.

Chiropracty and osteopathy.

Sweet’s syndrome frequently causes joint pain (arthralgia) or joint pain and swelling (arthritis), and can sometimes develop secondary to autoimmune conditions that affect the joints, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Sjögren’s syndrome. However, there is no evidence to show that chiropracty or osteopathy can be used to treat or cure Sweet’s syndrome, and if the joints are painful and swollen, osteopathy and chiropracty should be avoided, at least, until the swelling has reduced and been brought under control (Baxter, 2017; NHS Choices, 2014; NHS Choices, 2015b). This is because joint manipulation could make symptoms worse.

A type of arthritis called ankylosing spondylitis is associated with Sweet’s syndrome. In people with osteoporosis or ankylosing spondylitis where the joints are fused, joint manipulation can lead to fracture (Baxter, 2017).

In those with rheumatoid arthritis who have upper neck instability, joint manipulation can be very dangerous due to the increased risk of spinal cord compression.

Physiotherapy, which is not the same as osteopathy or chiropracty, is completely safe.

EAV or bioenergetics.

EAV or bioenergetics are tests that involve using electrodiagnostic devices to supposedly determine the cause of a disease by detecting the ‘energy imbalance’ causing the problem, or even cure a condition by correcting this imbalance. These tests and treatments are a scam, and there is absolutely no medical evidence to show that they work. In the United States (US), the importation of EAV devices has been banned, and if someone offers you, or refers you for EAV testing, please treat them with caution.

Essential oils.

No evidence to show that essential oils work, and should be used with caution when applied to the skin. This is because of potential skin irritation and pathergy response. Read more here.

Be careful of the multi-level marketing/direct selling company, ‘doTerra’. This is a company that sells essential oils, and some sellers are making false health claims in order to sell their products.

Homeopathy.

Homeopathy is being advocated as a treatment for Sweet’s syndrome by some alternative therapists. This is a pseudoscientific claim, and there is no evidence to support this claim. In fact, in 2010, the ‘House of Commons Science and Technology on Homeopathy’ made it clear that homeopathic remedies perform no better than placebos, and that the principles on which homeopathy is based are ‘scientifically implausible’ (NHS Choices, 2015a). Please take this into consideration before choosing to try homeopathy.

Low Dose Naltrexone (LDN).

Naltrexone is normally prescribed for drug (opioid) or alcohol dependence, but in low doses is being advocated as a treatment for a large number of conditions. The ‘LDN Research Trust’ has listed LDN as a treatment for eye problems in people with Sweet’s syndrome, despite the fact that they have produced no evidence to support this claim. It has been proposed that LDN reduces inflammation, but on the Low Dose Naltrexone website it also states that ‘LDN boosts the immune system, activating the body’s own natural defenses’. Boosting or increasing immune system activity isn’t going to treat Sweet’s syndrome, as the symptoms of this condition are caused by an overactive innate immune system, not an underactive or weakened one. When the immune system is overactive, this then leads to increased levels of inflammation in the body. There is a possibility that LDN might even make Sweet’s syndrome worse, particularly if it’s developed secondary to an autoimmune condition. Read more here (click link and see ‘Additional notes’). As there’s no evidence to show that LDN is effective or safe in the treatment of Sweet’s syndrome, if you do choose to try it, then please use with caution.

Probiotics.

There is no evidence to show that probiotics can be used to directly treat Sweet’s syndrome, but they are generally safe to use. Research into probiotics is limited, but they can be useful in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhoea, treating infectious diarrhoea, protecting premature babies from gut disease, irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, and pouchitis in people with the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), ulcerative colitis (NHS Choices, 2016). Sometimes, Sweet’s syndrome can develop secondary to the IBDs, ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, and if the IBD flares up then the Sweet’s syndrome often will too. However, at present, there is a lack of evidence to prove conclusively that probiotics can be useful in the management of Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis without pouchitis.

Red root (blood root, bloodwort). 

Red root is being advocated as a treatment for Sweet’s syndrome by some alternative therapists in the US. There is no evidence to support this claim, and it should be avoided or used with caution as it may not always be safe to use. Red root is a debriding agent (removes skin tissue) which means it should never be applied to the skin lesions of patients with Sweet’s syndrome, as there is an increased likelihood that it will trigger the development of new lesions. It should also be completely avoided by those with some health conditions or taking certain medications. Read more here.

Some other herbs and supplements to be used with caution.

There is no evidence to show that the following supplements can be used to treat Sweet’s syndrome. The algae chlorella is not suitable for those taking certain medications and could make the symptoms of autoimmune conditions, and possibly Sweet’s syndrome worse, particularly if the Sweet’s syndrome has developed secondary to an autoimmune condition. Alfalfa, astragalus, echinacea, and oral zinc should also be used with caution. Read more here.


Further information.

Arthritis Research UK (2017) Complementary and Alternative Medicines (online). Accessed 18/01/18.

Arthritis Research UK (2017) Diet and Nutritional Supplements (online). Accessed 18/01/18.

A warning about Polly Heil-Mealey! Sweet’s syndrome cannot be cured with herbs or homeopathic remedies.

Can vaccination trigger Sweet’s syndrome?

What is the treatment for Sweet’s syndrome?


References.

Baxter, S. (2017) Healing with Chiropractic Medicine. Arthritis Foundation (online). Accessed 18/01/18.

Clarys, P., Deliens, T., Huybrechts, I., Deriemaeker, P., Vanaelst, B., De Keyzer, W., Hebbelinck, M. and Mullie, P. (2014) Comparison of nutritional quality of the vegan, vegetarian, semi-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian and omnivorous diet. Nutrients, Mar 24;6(3):1318-32 (PMC).

NHS Choices (2014) Chiropractic (online). Reviewed 20/08/15, and accessed 18/01/18.

NHS Choices (2015a) Homeopathy (online). Reviewed 15/02/15, and accessed 18/01/18.

NHS Choices (2015b) Osteopathy (online). Reviewed 10/06/15, and accessed 18/01/18.

NHS Choices (2016) Probiotics (online). Reviewed on 28/01/16, and accessed 18/01/18.


Additional note.

Sweet’s Syndrome UK does not promote the use of alternative or nutritional therapies. This is because there is no evidence to show that these therapies are effective, or sometimes even safe to use in those with Sweet’s syndrome. If anyone does have information that proves that alternative or nutritional therapies can be used to treat Sweet’s syndrome, I will be more than happy to read it. However, only peer-reviewed medical articles and case-studies will be accepted as evidence. The following will not be accepted as evidence: anecdotal evidence and personal stories; testimonials; YouTube videos; information on blogs or websites where there are no references or links to peer-reviewed medical articles or case-studies, or where the author is not willing to provide this information; blogs or websites where someone tries to pass off their feelings or instincts, beliefs or opinions as facts or evidence – Michelle Holder, Sweet’s Syndrome UK.

Keep safe!

2012-2018 Sweet’s Syndrome UK