Can vaccination trigger Sweet’s syndrome?

Sweet’s syndrome triggered by vaccination.

There is some medical evidence to show that certain vaccinations can potentially trigger Sweet’s syndrome, but this is incredibly rare, and it is important to take the following information into consideration:

  • Sweet’s syndrome is rare, probably affecting no more than 3 people per 10,000 (Zamanian and Ameri, 2007).
  • It mainly affects adults not children, and only 5% to 8% of cases will be in children (Sharma et al, 2015).
  • In some people, something is needed to trigger the onset of Sweet’s syndrome, but in up to 71% of people with Sweet’s syndrome there is no known trigger (Tam and Ingraffea, 2015).
  • Infection, mainly upper respiratory tract infection, is a more common trigger for Sweet’s syndrome than vaccination. As a result, Sweet’s syndrome tends to be more common in countries where people are more likely to develop infections (Ginarte and Toribio, 2011:120).
  • There have only been 10 cases of Sweet’s syndrome triggered by vaccination reported in medical literature in the past 42 years – globally! In some of these cases, a definite connection between the vaccination and Sweet’s syndrome was not established.
  • Sweet’s syndrome has only been associated with certain vaccinations and not others (see below).

Which vaccinations have been associated with Sweet’s syndrome?

Sweet’s syndrome has been associated with the following vaccinations:

  • Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG or tuberculosis) (Carpentier et al, 2002: 82; Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016). Two cases. One in 1986, occurring 15 days after vaccination, but the authors of the medical article that reported this did not control the tuberculin (Mantoux) test. One reported in 2002, occurring 10 days after vaccination.
  • Streptococcus pneumonia (Carpentier et al, 2002: 82; Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016; Pedrosa et al, 2013). Two cases. One reported in 1990, occurring 4 days after vaccination following a splenectomy. One reported in 2013, and the first with the 13-valent conjugate vaccine.
  • Smallpox (Carpentier et al, 2002: 82; Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016). Two cases reported in 1975, occurring 3 days after vaccination.
  • Influenza (Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016; Hali et al, 2010, Jovanovic et al, 2005; Tan el al. 2006; Wolf et al. 2009). Four cases. One reported in 2005; in 2006, one case of bullous Sweet’s syndrome following vaccination in a HIV-infected patient; in 2009, neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands occurring 12 hours after vaccination; in 2010, one case of Sweet’s syndrome after H1N1 influenza (swine fluvaccination.

Do vaccinations trigger Sweet’s syndrome because they are toxic, contain toxins or dangerous chemicals?

No, vaccinations do not trigger Sweet’s syndrome because they are toxic, contain toxins or dangerous chemicals, and anyone who tells you this is either lying to you, trying to scare you, or has no understanding of vaccinations or Sweet’s syndrome.

Why do vaccinations trigger Sweet’s syndrome?

Vaccination can trigger Sweet’s syndrome because of hypersensitivity reaction. This is not the same as allergic reaction.

What is hypersensitivity reaction?

Sweet’s syndrome is caused by errors in the innate immune system (the body’s most primitive, ‘hard-wired’ immune system, and a part of the immune system that doesn’t produce antibodies). Because of these errors, in some people with Sweet’s syndrome, their innate immune system responds to antigens (proteins that a part of your immune system called the adaptive immune system sees as a foreign invader and produces antibodies in response to) in a way that it shouldn’t, i.e. is hypersensitive and over-reacts to the presence of infectious, inflammatory, drug, or tumour cell antigens (Bhat et al, 2015: 257; Kasirye et al, 2011: 135). This means that the presence of antigens associated with certain health conditions, medications and vaccinations can potentially trigger Sweet’s syndrome by causing the innate immune system to activate inflammatory cells, particularly white blood cells called neutrophils (Gosheger et al, 2002: 70). This then leads to the symptoms of Sweet’s syndrome.

If I have Sweet’s syndrome should I avoid having vaccinations?

No, most people with Sweet’s syndrome don’t need to avoid having their vaccinations unless they can’t be vaccinated for other medical reasons. However, if the Sweet’s syndrome was initially triggered by a particular vaccination, e.g. influenza, then it would not be advisable to have the same kind of vaccination again.

How do I know if vaccination has triggered my Sweet’s syndrome?

Remember, Sweet’s syndrome triggered by vaccination is incredibly rare, but if it does happen, then symptoms usually develop within hours, days or less commonly, a few weeks after vaccination. Skin lesions sometimes appear at the vaccination site, but this can also happen because of the skin damage caused by having the vaccination (puncture wound from the needle) rather than the vaccine itself. This response is known as pathergy.

Are there other triggers for Sweet’s syndrome?

Yes, and aside from the triggers that have already been mentioned (infection, skin damage, and vaccination), other triggers for Sweet’s syndrome include:

  • Cancer and blood disorders in 15-20% of cases, e.g. solid tumours, and myelodysplastic syndrome which may progress to acute myeloid leukaemia (Chen et al, 2016).
  • Inflammatory bowel disease, e.g. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (Cohen, 2007).
  • Autoimmune conditions, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • Medications in up to 5% of cases.
  • Pregnancy in up to 2% of cases. This is probably associated with hormonal changes, but further research is required.
  • Overexposure to sunlight or ultraviolet (UV) light. This can sometimes trigger Sweet’s syndrome, but we are not entirely sure why this happens.

References.

Bhat, Y., Hassan, I., Sajad, P., Akhtar, S. and Sheikh, S. (2015) Sweet’s Syndrome: An Evidence-Based Report. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons – Pakistan, Jul;25(7):525-7 (PubMed).

Carpentier, O., Piette, F. and Delaporte, E. (2002) Sweet’s syndrome after BCG vaccination. Acta Dermato-Venereologica;82(3):221 (PubMed).

Chen, S., Kuo, Y., Liu, Y., Chen, B., Lu, Y. and Miser, J. (2016) Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting with Sweet Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. Pediatrics and Neonatology (online).

Cohen, P. (2007) Sweet’s syndrome – a comprehensive review of an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (online).

Cruz-Velásquez, G., Pac Sha, J., Simal Gil, E. and Gazulla, J. (2016). Aseptic meningitis and anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies in Sweet syndrome. Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain), Jul 21 (0nline). Article in Spanish, use translate

Ginarte, M. and Toribio, J. (2011) Sweet Syndrome. In Dr. Fang-Ping (Ed.) Autoimmune Disorders – Current Concepts and Advances from Bedside to Mechanistic Insights. Croatia or China: Intech, pp. 119-132 (PDF). 

Gosheger, G., Hillman, A., Ozaki, T., Buerger, H. and Winklemann, W. (2002) Sweet’s Syndrome Associated With Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis. Acta Orthopædica Belgica, Feb;68(1):68-71 (PubMed).

Hali, F., Sbai, M., Benchikhi, H., Ouakadi, A. and Zamiati, S. (2010) [Sweet’s syndrome after H1N1 influenza vaccination]. Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie,  Nov;137(11):740-1 (PubMed).

Jovanovic, M., Poljacki, M., Vujanovic, L. and Duran, V. (2005) Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet’s syndrome) after influenza vaccination. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Feb;52(2):367-9 (PubMed).

Kasirye, Y., Danhof, R., Epperla, N. and Garcia-Montilla, R. (2011) Sweet’s Syndrome: One Disease, Multiple Faces. Clinical Medicine & Research, Nov;9(3-4):134-136 (online).

Pedrosa, A., Morais, P., Nogueira, A., Pardal, J. and Azevedo, F. (2013) Sweet’s syndrome triggered by pneumococcal vaccination. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, Sep;32(3):260-1 (PubMed).

Sharma, A., Rattan, R., Shankar, V., Tegta, G. and Verma, G. (2015) Sweet’s syndrome in a 1-year-old child. Indian Journal of  Paediatric Dermatology;16:29-31 (online).

Tam, C. and Ingraffea, A. (2015) Case Letter: Sweet Syndrome Presenting With an Unusual Morphology. Cutis, Aug;96(2):E9-E10 (online).

Tan, A., Tan. H., and Lim, P. (2006) Bullous Sweet’s syndrome following influenza vaccination in a HIV-infected patient. International Journal of Dermatology, Oct;45(10):1254-5 (PubMed). 

Zamanian, A. and Ameri, A. (2007) Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet’s syndrome): a study of 15 cases in Iran. International Journal of Dermatology, Jun;46(6):571-4 (PubMed).

Wolf, R., Barzilai, A. and Davidovici, B. (2009) Neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands after influenza vaccination. International Journal of Dermatology, Jan;48(1):66-8 (PubMed).

© 2012-2017 Sweet’s Syndrome UK

Can medication trigger Sweet’s syndrome?

Updated 03/03/17.

Can medication trigger Sweet’s syndrome?

Yes. In up to 5% of cases, Sweet’s syndrome is triggered by medication (Cohen, 2007). This is known as drug-induced Sweet’s syndrome.

How will you know if your Sweet’s syndrome has been triggered by medication?

In at least 95% of patients with Sweet’s syndrome, their condition is not triggered by medication. However, drug-induced Sweet’s syndrome should be considered if:

  • Your Sweet’s syndrome developed not long after a particular medication was started.
  • Your Sweet’s syndrome has continued to persist for many months or years, even after treatment.

What will happen if your doctor thinks you have drug-induced Sweet’s syndrome?

Unfortunately, there is no special test to tell you whether or not your Sweet’s syndrome is being triggered by medication. However, if it is suspected that your Sweet’s syndrome is drug-induced, your doctor will:

  • Stop the medication that is possibly causing your Sweet’s syndrome. Your Sweet’s syndrome should then start to settle down, but you may still need treatment.
  • Re-introduce the medication (rechallenge) to see if your Sweet’s syndrome flares-up again. Sometimes, your doctor will decide that this is not necessary.

Why does medication trigger Sweet’s syndrome in some people?

Drug-induced Sweet’s syndrome is often caused by hypersensitivity reaction, but it can sometimes happen for other reasons too, e.g. a treatment that increases white cell production, or causes hormonal changes. Read more here.

What is hypersensitivity reaction, and is it the same as allergic reaction?

No. Hypersensitivity reaction is not the same as allergic reaction.

Hypersensitivity reaction.

Sweet’s syndrome is caused by errors in the innate immune system (the body’s most primitive, ‘hard-wired’ immune system, and a part of the immune system that doesn’t produce antibodies). Because of these errors, in some people with Sweet’s syndrome, their innate immune system responds to antigens (proteins that a part of your immune system called the adaptive immune system sees as a foreign invader and produces antibodies in response to) in a way that it shouldn’t, i.e. is hypersensitive and over-reacts to the presence of infectious, inflammatory, drug, or tumour cell antigens (Bhat et al, 2015: 257; Kasirye et al, 2011: 135). This means that the presence of antigens associated with certain health conditions and medications can potentially trigger Sweet’s syndrome by causing the innate immune system to activate inflammatory cells, particularly white blood cells called neutrophils (Gosheger et al, 2002: 70). This then leads to the symptoms of Sweet’s syndrome. Read more here.

Allergic reaction.

The most common type of allergy is an IgE-mediated allergy. This is an adverse reaction that the body has to a particular substance that is foreign to the body, e.g. a food, pollen, or pet hair, that does not normally cause harm. This substance is known as an allergen (a type of antigen). Allergic reaction occurs when the immune system mistakes an allergen for a foreign invader such as a bacteria or virus. The adaptive immune system then quickly produces allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in response to this, in order to fight the allergen off. Chemicals such as histamine are also produced, with the overall immune response causing the symptoms of allergy.

What medications have been reported to have triggered Sweet’s syndrome?

Medications that have been reported to trigger Sweet’s syndrome include:

Analgesics (non-opioids).

  • Paracetamol (triggered a Sweet’s syndrome-like condition) (Culla et al, 2014).

Antibiotics.

  • Amoxicillin (possibly) (Volpe, 2016).
  • Clindamycin (Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016).
  • Tetracycline.
  • Doxycycline (Ibid).
  • Minocycline (Cohen, 2007).
  • Nitrofurantoin.
  • Norfloxacin.
  • Ofloxacin.
  • Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole.
  • Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Ibid).
  • Piperacillin/tazobactam (Cruz- Velasquez et al, 2016).

Anti-epileptics.

  • Carbamazepine (Cohen, 2007).
  • Diazepam.

Anti-hypertensives.

  • Hydralazine (Cohen, 2007).

Anti-malarials.

  • Chloroquine (Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016).

Anti-manic agents.

  • Lithium (Xenophontos et al, 2016).

Anti-neoplastics.

  • Bortezomib (Llamas-Velasco et al, 2015).
  • Decitabine (Kasirye et al, 2011: 134).
  • Imatinib mesylate (Cohen, 2007).
  • Ipilimumab (Gormley et al, 2014).
  • Lenalidomide (Cohen, 2007).
  • Obinutuzumab (triggered a Sweet’s syndrome-like condition) (Korman et al, 2016).

Anti-viral drugs.

  • Abacavir (Cohen, 2007).
  • Acyclovir (Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016).
  • Interferon-α.

Colony stimulating factors.

  • Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). This is the most common treatment to trigger Sweet’s syndrome (Cohen, 2007).
  • Granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF).
  • Pegfilgrastim (Ibid).

Contraceptives.

  • Levonorgestrel/ethinyl estradiol (Triphasil) (Cohen, 2007).
  • Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (Mirena).

Diuretics.

  • Furosemide (Cohen, 2007).

Immunosuppressants.

  • Azathioprine (Salem et al, 2015). Sometimes, azathioprine-induced Sweet’s syndrome can be confused with azathioprine hypersensitivity syndrome (AHS) (Aleissa et al, 2017). This is a rare adverse reaction occurring a few days to weeks after azathioprine has been given. AHS can sometimes mimic Sweet’s syndrome, and an azathioprine rechallenge is not advised, as it may lead to a severe adverse reaction or even death.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

  • Celecoxib (Cohen, 2007; Oh et al, 2016).
  • Rofecoxib (Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016).
  • Diclofenac (Cohen, 2007; Gupta et al, 2015).

Platelet aggregation inhibitors.

  • Ticagrelor (Ikram and Veerappan, 2016).

Proton-pump inhibitors.

  • Esomeprazole (Cohen, 2015).
  • Omeprazole.

Psychotropics.

  • Clozapine (Cohen, 2007).
  • Amoxapine (Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016).
  • Diazepam.
  • Lormetazepam (Ibid).

Retinoids.

  • All-trans retinoic acid (Cohen, 2007; Tam and Ingraffea, 2015).
  • 13-cis-retinoic acid (isotretinoin) (Cohen, 2007).

Sulfa drugs.

  • Sulfasalazine (Romdhane et al, 2016).

Thyroid drugs.

  • Propylthiouracil (Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016).

Vaccinations.

  • Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG or tuberculosis) (Carpentier et al, 2002: 82; Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016). Two cases. One in 1986, occurring 15 days after vaccination, but the authors of the medical article that reported this did not control the tuberculin (Mantoux) test. One reported in 2002, occurring 10 days after vaccination.
  • Streptococcus pneumonia (Carpentier et al, 2002: 82; Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016; Pedrosa et al, 2013). Two cases. One reported in 1990, occurring 4 days after vaccination following a splenectomy. One reported in 2013, and the first with the 13-valent conjugate vaccine.
  • Smallpox (Carpentier et al, 2002: 82; Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016). Two cases reported in 1975, occurring 3 days after vaccination.
  • Influenza (Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016; Hali et al, 2010, Jovanovic et al, 2005; Tan el al, 2006; Wolf et al. 2009). Four cases. One reported in 2005; in 2006, one case of bullous Sweet’s syndrome following vaccination in a HIV-infected patient; in 2009, neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands occurring 12 hours after vaccination; in 2010, one case of Sweet’s syndrome after H1N1 influenza (swine fluvaccination.

Sweet’s syndrome triggered by vaccination is so rare (only 10 cases reported in medical literature in the past 42 years) that a definite connection has not been established in all cases. Also, as infection is a more common trigger for Sweet’s syndrome than vaccination, you may be more likely to develop Sweet’s syndrome as a result of not having your vaccinations than having them.

If someone tells you that Sweet’s syndrome is triggered by vaccinations because they are toxic or poisonous, or contain toxins or dangerous chemicals, then they either have no understanding of Sweet’s syndrome or vaccinations, are not telling you the truth or are trying to scare you, and will have no evidence to support their claims. Sweet’s syndrome triggered by vaccination occurs because of errors in the innate immune system, and this part of the immune system responding to antigens in the way that it shouldn’t. It is nothing to do with toxins!

Xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

  • Allopurinol (Polimeni et al, 2015).

Other.

  • X-ray contrast agents (Cruz-Velasquez et al, 2016).

References.

Aleissa, M., Nicol, P., Godeau, M., Tournier, E., de Bellissen, F., Robic, M., Livideanu, C., Mazereeuw-Hautier, J. and Paul, C. (2017) Azathioprine Hypersensitivity Syndrome: Two Cases of Febrile Neutrophilic Dermatosis Induced by Azathioprine. Case Reports in Dermatology, Jan 19;9(1):6-11 (0nline).

Bhat, Y., Hassan, I., Sajad, P., Akhtar, S. and Sheikh, S. (2015) Sweet’s Syndrome: An Evidence-Based Report. Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons – Pakistan, Jul;25(7):525-7 (PubMed).

Carpentier, O., Piette, F. and Delaporte, E. (2002) Sweet’s syndrome after BCG vaccination. Acta Dermato-Venereologica;82(3):221 (PubMed).

Cohen, P. (2015) Proton pump inhibitor-induced Sweet’s syndrome: report of acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis in a woman with recurrent breast cancer. Dermatology Practical & Conceptual, April; 5(2):113–119 (online).

Cohen, P. (2007) Sweet’s syndrome – a comprehensive review of an acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (online).

Cruz-Velásquez, G., Pac Sha, J., Simal Gil, E. and Gazulla, J. (2016). Aseptic meningitis and anti-β2-glycoprotein 1 antibodies in Sweet syndrome. Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain), Jul 21 (0nline). Article in Spanish, use translate.

Culla, T., Amayuelas, R., Diez-Canseco, M., Fernandez-Figueras, M., Giralt, C. and Vazquez, M. (2014) Neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet’s syndrome-like) induced by paracetamol. Clinical and Translational Allergy, Jul; 4(Suppl 3): P83 (online).

Gormley, R., Wanat, K., Elenitsas, R., Giles, J., McGettingan, S., Schucher, L. and Takeshita, J. (2014) Ipilimumab-associated Sweet syndrome in a melanoma patient. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Nov;71(5):e211-3 (online).

Gosheger, G., Hillman, A., Ozaki, T., Buerger, H. and Winklemann, W. (2002) Sweet’s Syndrome Associated With Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis. Acta Orthopædica Belgica, Feb;68(1):68-71 (PubMed).

Gupta, S., Bajpai, M. and Uraiya, D. (2015) Diclofenac-induced sweet’s syndrome. Indian Journal of Dermatology;60:424 (online).

Hali, F., Sbai, M., Benchikhi, H., Ouakadi, A. and Zamiati, S. (2010) [Sweet’s syndrome after H1N1 influenza vaccination]. Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie,  Nov;137(11):740-1 (PubMed).

Ikram, S. and Veerappan, V. (2016) Ticagrelor-induced Sweet Syndrome: an unusual dermatologic complication after percutaneous coronary intervention. Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics, May 4th (PubMed).

Jovanovic, M., Poljacki, M., Vujanovic, L. and Duran, V. (2005) Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet’s syndrome) after influenza vaccination. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, Feb;52(2):367-9 (PubMed).

Kasirye, Y., Danhof, R., Epperla, N. and Garcia-Montilla, R. (2011) Sweet’s Syndrome: One Disease, Multiple Faces. Clinical Medicine & Research, Nov;9(3-4):134-136 (online).

Korman, S., Hastings, J. and Byrd, J. (2016) Sweet-Like Eruption Associated With Obinutuzumab Therapy for Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia. JAMA Dermatology, Nov 23 (online).

Llamas-Velasco, M., Concha-Garcon, M., Fraga, J. and Arageus, M. (2015) Histiocytoid sweet syndrome related to bortezomib: A mimicker of cutaneous infiltration by myeloma. Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology, May;81:305-6 (online).

Oh, E., Shin, J., Hong, J., Kim, J., Ro, Y. and Ko, J. (2016) Drug-induced bullous Sweet’s syndrome by celecoxib. The Journal of Dermatology, Apr 6 (PubMed).

Pedrosa, A., Morais, P., Nogueira, A., Pardal, J. and Azevedo, F. (2013) Sweet’s syndrome triggered by pneumococcal vaccination. Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology, Sep;32(3):260-1 (PubMed).

Polimeni. G., Cardillo, R., Garaffo, E., Giardina, C., Macrì, R., Sirna, V.,  Guarneri, C. and Arcoraci, V. (2015) Allopurinol-induced Sweet’s syndrome. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology, Dec 18th (PubMed).

Romdhane, H., Mokni, S., Fathallah, N., Ghariani, N., Sriha, B. and Salem, B. (2016) Sulfasalazine-induced Sweet’s syndrome. Therapie, Jun;71(3):345-347 (PubMed).

Salem, C., Larif, S., Fathallah, N., Slim, R., Aounallah, A. and Hmouda, J. (2015) A rare case of azathioprine-induced Sweet’s syndrome in a patient with Crohn’s disease. Current Drug Safety, July (PubMed online).

Tam, C. and Ingraffea, A. (2015) Case Letter: Sweet Syndrome Presenting With an Unusual Morphology. Cutis, Aug;96(2):E9-E10 (online).

Tan, A., Tan. H., and Lim, P. (2006) Bullous Sweet’s syndrome following influenza vaccination in a HIV-infected patient. International Journal of Dermatology, Oct;45(10):1254-5 (PubMed). 

Volpe, M. (2016) Sweet Syndrome Associated with Upper Respiratory Infection and Amoxicillin Use. Cureus, Apr; 8(4): e568 (online).

Wolf, R., Barzilai, A. and Davidovici, B. (2009) Neutrophilic dermatosis of the hands after influenza vaccination. International Journal of Dermatology, Jan;48(1):66-8 (PubMed).

Xenophontos, E., Ioannou, A., Constantinides, T. and Papanicolaou. E. (2016) Sweet syndrome on a patient with autoimmune hepatitis on azathioprine and CMV infection. Oxford Medical Case Reports, Feb; (2): 24–27 (online).

Other information.

Cetin, G., Sayarlioglu, H., Erhan, C., Kahraman, H., Ciralik, H. and Sayarlioglu, M. (2014) A case of neutrophilic dermatosis who develop palpable purpura during the use of montelukast. European Journal of Dermatology,  Dec; 1(4): 170–171 (online).

© 2012-2017 Sweet’s Syndrome UK

Support Sweet’s Syndrome UK Day. Share 5 Key Facts About Sweet’s Syndrome

June 2nd is Sweet’s Syndrome UK Day. Share 5 key facts about Sweet’s syndrome to help spread awareness.

1. Sweet’s syndrome is a rare condition. Rare conditions affect less than 5 people per 10,000. Sweet’s syndrome probably affects no more than 3 people per 10,000.

2. Sweet’s syndrome is often referred to as a skin condition, but it doesn’t just affect the skin. It causes lots of other symptoms too, and can sometimes make a person seriously ill. On occasion, it is life-threatening.

3. Sweet’s syndrome is a form of neutrophilic dermatosis. These conditions occur as a result of lots of white blood cells called neutrophils infiltrating the tissues. They can sometimes be a sign of underlying illness, including cancer.

4. Sweet’s syndrome is an autoinflammatory and not an autoimmune condition. Autoinflammatory conditions are caused by errors in the innate immune system, our most primitive, ‘hard-wired’ immune system. Autoimmune conditions involve the adaptive immune system, the part of the immune system that produces (auto)antibodies in response to antigens.

5. Sweet’s syndrome is still a poorly understood condition, but causes include hypersensitivity reaction (not the same as allergic reaction), cytokine dysregulation and genetic susceptibility – some people (mainly Japanese) with Sweet’s syndrome are more likely to have the genetic marker HLA-B54. However, this does not mean that Sweet’s syndrome is a genetic condition.

Read more @ Key info.

BEE sweet and buzz for Sweet’s – help us spread the word!

© 2012-2017 Sweet’s Syndrome UK

Smoking and Sweet’s Syndrome

Updated 3/04/17.

Should you stop smoking if you have Sweet’s syndrome?

Ideally, yes.

If you are diagnosed with Sweet’s syndrome, it is very important to try to stop smoking for the following reasons:

  • Smoking is bad for overall health.
  • Smoking is bad for the skin.
  • Some people with Sweet’s syndrome are taking medication or develop their Sweet’s syndrome secondary to a condition that weakens or severely weakens their immune system. This means that they are more likely to develop infections, and infection can sometimes trigger Sweet’s syndrome. This is because some people with Sweet’s syndrome experience hypersensitivity reaction (not the same as allergic reaction). Read more here.
  • Smoking increases your risk of developing a respiratory infection, and upper respiratory tract infection is the commonest infectious trigger for Sweet’s syndrome.

What are upper respiratory tract infections?

Upper respiratory tract infections are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract: nose, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, and bronchi (airways going into the lungs). They commonly include tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, sinusitis, bronchitis, otitis media (middle-ear infection), flu, and the common cold.

What are the symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection?

A cough is the most common symptom of an upper respiratory tract infection. Other symptoms include:

  • Fever.
  • Headaches.
  • Stuffed or runny nose.
  • Sneezing.
  • Sore throat.
  • Muscle aches and pain

The symptoms of an upper respiratory tract infection usually pass within one to two weeks.

Smoking is bad for the skin. Why is this?

Smoking is bad for the skin because it can (Simpkin and Oakley, 2016):

  • Speed-up the skin ageing process. Ageing of the skin means that it can sag; develop wrinkles and lines; becomes dry and coarse; have uneven skin colouring; blood vessels can be more prominent.
  • Slow-down wound healing which means that skin injuries and surgical wounds will take longer to heal.
  • Increase your risk of skin or wound infection.
  • Double your risk of skin cancer (squamous cell carcinoma), and increase your risk of developing other cancers. 75% of cases of oral cancer and lip cancer occur in smokers.
  • Increase your risk of developing the disabling skin condition palmoplantar pustulosis which mainly affects middle-aged women, particularly those who smoke (more than 90% of cases).
  • Increase your risk of developing other skin conditions, e.g. psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa and cutaneous lupus erythematosus.
  • Make skin conditions worse and more difficult to treat.
  • Make certain medications less effective, e.g. insulin, analgesics, antipsychotics, and anticoagulants.

References.

Simpkin, S. and Oakley, A. (2016) Smoking and its effects on the skin. DermNet NZ (online). Originally published in 2010, and updated by Professor A. Oakley in Nov 2016. Accessed on 3/04/17.

Further information.

NHS Choices (2016) Live Well – Stop Smoking (online). Accessed 3/04/17.

© 2012-2017 Sweet’s Syndrome UK